J Anesth Perioper Med. 2017;4(6):237-242. https://doi.org/10.24015/ebcmed.japm.2017.0192
From the Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
*Contributed equally to this work.
Correspondence to Dr. Ziqing Hei at heiziqing@sina. com or Dr. Chaojin Chen at email@example.com.
EBCMED ID: ebcmed.japm.2017.0192 DOI: 10.24015/ebcmed.japm.2017.0192
To observe the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelin (ET) in small intestinal mucosa of rats which experienced hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion (HS/R) injury, and further explores the effect of astragalus in HS/R process.
Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into SHAM group, HS group, HS+Pre-AS group, and HS+Post-AS group. Except for the rats in the SHAM group, the rest rats were experienced severe uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and recovery treatment, the rats in HS+Pre-AS group were intravenous injected astragalus 15 g/kg/d for 7days before the experiment, the rats in HS+Post-AS group were intravenous injected astragalus 20 g/kg after ischemia. Then rats were killed and the small intestinal mucosa was obtained for H&E staining to observe the pathological changes of the intestine, blood was collected to detected serum MDA, SOD activity, NO levels, and the expressions of iNOS and ET in the intestinal mucosa were detected by western blot.
There was no intestinal mucosa injury in SHAM group, the most serious intestinal mucosa injury appeared in HS group, astragalus had a protective effect on small intestinal mucosa in ischemia-reperfusion models. Compared with the SHAM group, the Chiu’s scores in HS group were the largest, accompanied by an increase of serum MDA and decrease of serum SOD activity. Pretreatment with astragalus significantly alleviated intestinal pathological injury, decreased MDA and enhanced SOD activity, but not post-treatment. Meanwhile, the expressions of iNOS and ET-1 increased significantly in HS group and HS+Post-AS group. Compared with HS group, the expression of iNOS and ET-1 in the HS+Pre-AS group were significantly alleviated.
Astragalus pretreatment might protect the intestine from uncontrolled HS/R injury, which might be associated with the reduction of the iNOS and ET-1 expression. However, post-treatment with astragalus had no the same protective effect. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan, China.)
Declaration of Interests
The authors have no other potential conflicts of interest for this work.
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81372090 and 81571926), Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province (2013B051000035) and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan, China (201508030003 and 201607010233).
This is an open-access article, published by Evidence Based Communications (EBC). This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format for any lawful purpose. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.